On circular economy and the sustainable development of China's packaging industry
l the transformation of economic growth mode and the development mode of circular economy
economic growth mode refers to the input and combination of various production factors that promote economic growth. Its essence is to rely on what factors, with what means, through what ways, and how to achieve economic growth. Although China has made great achievements in the transformation of economic growth mode in the process of reform and opening up, the industrial structure has been gradually upgraded, the contribution rate of technological progress to economic growth has been continuously improved, and the energy and material consumption levels of many industries, enterprises and products have decreased. However, there are still some problems in the mode of economic growth, such as high input, high consumption, high emissions, uncoordinated, difficult circulation and low efficiency UJ, which are quite prominent in some regions, industries and enterprises. For example, the resource consumption per unit of GDP in China is 3-4 times higher than that in developed countries; Energy consumption is 6.5 times that of Japan and 3.65 times that of the United States; Steel consumption is 5, 8 times that of the United States; The recovery rate of mineral resources in China is only 30%; Paper is only 15%, lower than 20% - 30% of the world average. From the perspective of resource carrying capacity, China is a country with high population density and poor per capita resources. At the current level, China's per capita land and water resources are only 1/3 and 1/4 of the world's per capita, and per capita mineral resources are less than half of the world's average level. With the population growth and the development of the national economy, the contradiction between the supply and demand of various resources will become more prominent. By 2010, China's GDP will double that of 2000. Obviously, if we follow the current traditional mode of economic growth, the contradictions and bottleneck constraints between population, resources, environment and economic growth will intensify, It is difficult to achieve the "comprehensive, coordinated and sustainable development" of economy and society required by the scientificoutlookondevelopment.
and the growth mode of circular economy is an inevitable choice. Circular economy is a 350 large-scale split full-automatic foam granulator, which takes the efficient utilization and recycling of resources as the core, and takes "The economic growth mode that is based on the principles of reduction, reuse and recycling, with low consumption, low emission and high efficiency as the basic characteristics, and in line with the concept of sustainable development is right. The fundamental change of the traditional growth mode of mass production, mass consumption and mass abandonment J. circular economy is a closed-loop material flow economy that integrates cleaner production and comprehensive utilization of waste, which is essentially an ecological economy. In scientific development Under the guidance of the concept, circular economy will be the inevitable way for the sustainable development of China's industrial economy, especially for the packaging industry
2 problems faced by the sustainable development of the packaging industry
the packaging industry plays an increasingly important role in meeting and serving the development of the national economy, ensuring effective supply, increasing export earnings, reducing logistics losses, improving the added value of goods, beautifying and enriching people's living standards, and has become an important growth point of the national economy. China has become a real packaging power. The output value of the packaging industry rose from 7.2 billion yuan in 1981 to 280.6 billion yuan in 2003. The average annual growth rate was 1. It is suitable for making heat-resistant, fire-resistant and high dimensional stability electrical parts, which increased by 18%. In 2004, there were 11000 state-owned and non-state-owned packaging industrial enterprises with an annual sales revenue of 5million yuan or more, and the annual average number of on-the-job employees was 1.5 million. The output of paper packaging products has exceeded 14million tons, ranking third in the world only after the United States and Japan; The output of plastic, metal and glass packaging products ranks fourth in the world; The output of containers for transportation and packaging has ranked first in the world, and China has truly become a major packaging country in the world
however, the overall competitiveness of China's packaging industry is not very strong, and there is still a large gap compared with developed countries. The main problems are the low degree of industrial intensification, structural convergence, low overall technical level, low added value of products, low recycling rate, and many large packaging enterprises in developed countries still rely on the equipment, raw and auxiliary materials, and packaging products necessary for China's packaging industry. The sustainable development of the packaging industry faces the following problems:
2.1 large resource consumption
it is predicted that before 2010, paper, plastic, glass and metal packaging products will increase year by year at the rate of 9% - 10%, ll% - 12%, 6% - 7%, 10% - ll%. In 2010, the total output value of China's packaging industry will reach 450 billion yuan, including 27 million tons of paper packaging and 27.07 million tons of plastic packaging, Glass packaging reached 12.7 million tons, and metal packaging reached 3.85 million tons. Packaging is disposable waste, about 80% of which is converted into waste. The life cycle of packaging products is shorter than that of other industrial products, and the recycling rate is low. The secondary utilization rate of resources is only 1/4 ~ 1/3 of that of industrial developed countries; Due to the relatively backward technology and equipment, there is a lot of waste of resources, some of which are non renewable resources
2.2 excessive packaging wastes a lot
at present, excessive packaging is common in the domestic market, such as the packaging of moon cakes, the packaging of various health and nutrition products, use The saying "two catties of bamboo shoots and three catties of shells" can't be more appropriate to evaluate. It is reported that more than 3 million moon cake boxes are thrown away in Hainan every year, and this alone produces more than 700 tons of scrap iron, waste wood, and bottom paper. In addition, according to statistics, the country produces an average of 1.2 billion shirts every year, and the amount of paper used in packaging boxes is 240000 tons, which is equivalent to cutting 1.68 million trees with a thick bowl. The cartons used in packaging shirts are only a drop in the ocean, if you count them There is no doubt that the amount of paper used for commodity packaging and the trees to be cut down is an amazing number
2.3 packaging waste pollution is serious
according to statistics, the environmental pollution caused by packaging is second only to water pollution, marine lake pollution and air pollution, and has ranked fourth. At present, the global waste from packaging is more than 200 billion tons, and about 16million tons in China. Packaging waste has accounted for 15% of urban domestic waste in weight and 30% in volume. With the development of economy and the improvement of people's living standards, packaging waste is still 10% per year. At the end of work, the mixer should be cleaned at an increasing rate. In particular, non degradable plastic packaging wastes such as foamed plastics and handbags, because they are high molecular compounds, will not degrade and rot for 200 years, Caused by "White pollution has become a major public hazard in society, causing serious pollution to the environment on both sides of cities, rivers and railways. Last year, China's per capita milk consumption was 7.6kg, while the world average was 65.5kg, which is only one ninth of the world level. However, the country consumed a total of 11billion Tetra Pak bricks and Tetra Pak pillow packaging, accounting for the second place in the world. Calculated by the weight of log of each packaging material, it was equivalent to 110000 tons of white pollution.
2 4. The recycling rate of packaging waste is low
the gap between China's packaging industry and developed countries such as the United States, Europe and Japan in technology level, per capita output value, energy consumption, recycling and other aspects. It is understood that the average reuse rate of paper, iron, aluminum and glass containers in Switzerland has reached more than 86%; The recovery rate of German tinplate is 50%, the recovery rate of corrugated paper is as high as 95%, and the comprehensive recovery rate of waste newspaper is 78%; In 2003, the recycling rate of waste in the United States was 42% for paper, 40% for plastic bottles of soft drinks, and 57% for iron packaging. The recycling rate of waste plastics in Italy can reach 28%. The recovery rate of paper, plastic, glass and other packaging products in China is 10% - 30% lower than that in developed countries respectively. A large number of resources can be used only once to become garbage, and the recovery rate is too low
2.5 "green barrier" of export commodity packaging
with the rising tide of environmental protection, environmental issues are also increasingly concerned in international trade. Some developed countries have formulated a series of environmental trade measures on the grounds of environmental protection, which not only requires the end products to meet the environmental protection requirements, but also stipulates that the completion and operation of the project requires the whole process of product research, development, production, packaging, transportation, use, recycling and reuse to meet the environmental protection requirements. This has brought great obstacles to the international competitiveness and exports of products from developing countries, such "Green barriers have become a major resistance for Chinese enterprises to move towards the world.
in recent years, developed countries in Europe and the United States have increased the inspection standards for the packaging of import and export commodities, especially for China's export food packaging, from the original several items to dozens of items now, so that some of China's export commodities are blocked by increasingly serious green packaging barriers, which has affected the export trade of China's agricultural and sideline products to a certain extent. It is reported that Tao said that in some export commodities of China, the annual losses caused by the contradiction between imperfect packaging and green trade barriers and green packaging barriers are as high as more than 30 billion yuan, which continues to show an upward trend after China's accession to the WTO
3 the sustainable development of packaging industry must choose circular economy
with the further development of China's economy, according to the requirements of the scientific concept of development, vigorously develop circular economy, accelerate the establishment of a resource-saving society, and take the road of circular economy is the only way for the packaging industry to achieve sustainable development, which is particularly important and urgent
3.1 the packaging industry is an important area of resource conservation
the rapid growth of all kinds of packaging products and packaging products consumes a lot of resources. According to the statistics of the total output of the national packaging industry, the current paper packaging products are about 8.35 million tons, plastic packaging products are about 2.44 million tons, glass packaging products are about 4.44 million tons, and metal packaging products are about 1.61 million tons. At the same time, these products are also growing at different rates of 12.5% - 30% every year. In the future, in order to maintain sustained and rapid economic growth, the increase of resource consumption is inevitable. If we continue to follow the traditional development model and realize industrialization and modernization with a large amount of resource consumption, it will be unsustainable. We must emphasize resource conservation. The packaging industry has great potential to save resources through the principles of reduction, reuse and recycling
first of all, all kinds of packaging waste are mostly renewable resources, and the continuous growth of packaging waste production provides sufficient production resources for recycling. If the resource recovery system can be established on a large scale, it will reduce the waste of raw materials and the emission, transportation and treatment of packaging waste. Only according to the current recycling level, 140000 tons of cartons are recycled in a year, which can save 80000 tons of coal, 49 million kwh of electricity, 23.8 tons of wood pulp and 11000 tons of caustic soda used in the production of paper at the same time; Recycling 1billion glass bottles a year can save 49000 tons of coal, 38.5 million tons of electricity, 49000 tons of quartz and 15700 tons of soda ash needed for the production of glass bottles at the same time; Recycling 40million iron drums can save 48000 tons of steel; Recycling 3000 sacks can save 225000 tons of raw hemp, and the total value of the above items is hundreds of millions of yuan
using renewable resources for production can not only save natural resources and curb the spread of garbage, but also consume less energy and discharge less pollutants than using natural raw materials for production. Taking the recovery of two piece aluminum cans as an example, remelting and smelting 1 ton of aluminum saves 95% energy than producing aluminum with bauxite, recovering 1 ton of aluminum or saving 4 tons of aluminum ore, 400kg of oil and coke; Recycling steel and glass waste can save 50% of the energy required to produce this material; Made of plastic waste